3 Understand the values according to experts
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23 Understanding or defining values according to experts
Understanding the first value can be interpreted as something that is valuable, useful and useful to humans. Value is an objective thing and constitutes a kind of world of values which is the highest measure of human behaviour. According to a character named Nietzsche, an intended value is the level or degree that humans want. Values are the objectives of the real human will often arranged in order of levels starting from the bottom, they are hedonic values (enjoyment), utilitarian values (usability), biological values (nobility), aesthetic self-values (beauty), personal values (ethics) . , goodness), and most of the above is the value of (religious) holiness.
Value is a discussion found in philosophy where value is a branch of philosophy called axiology or value philosophy. Values are the basis or reason for behavior and attitudes, whether consciously or unconsciously.
Value can also be interpreted as the nature of something that affects human life, both physically and mentally. The meaning of value is theoretically a belief capable of taking responsibility in relationships between people and also in relationships with the Creator.
Many experts in the world spoke and defined the meaning of value. Here are 23 definitions of value according to experts:
1) Understanding Values According to Ralph Perry: A value described by Ralph Perry is an object that comes from an individual’s interests.
2) Understanding Values according to Fraenkel: Fraenkel explains that value is a concept or idea about what a person believes and what he considers important.
3) The understanding of value according to Cooperman: The understanding of value according to Cooperman is normative and can influence human decision-making.
4) Understanding value according to Louis O. Kattsof: value is divided into two types by Louis, where there is an intrinsic value which is the value that was originally already valuable, and the second is instrumental value where the value is a consequence of something as the result of its use as a means to achieve an objective.
5) Understanding Values according to Molyana: According to Molyana, a value is a belief and a reference for determining choice.
6) Understanding Values According to Gordon Allport: Gordon explains that value is a belief that can cause a person to take action based on their choice.
7) Definition of value according to Danandjaja: Value according to Danandjaja is the understanding that a person has something more or less important, what is better and less good, and also what is more correct and what is wrong.
8) Understanding Values According to Kluckhohn: Kluckhon indicates that a value is a perception of what is desired and influences a person in determining work on the means and goals to be achieved.
9) Understanding values according to Notonagoro: According to Notonagoro, values consist of three main values, which are vital, material and spiritual values.
10) Definition of value according to Purwodarmito: According to Purwodarmito, value can be explained into five things, including price of the thing, price according to discretion, number of intelligence, quality, as well as important attributes.
11) Understanding values according to Kimball Young Understanding values according to Kimball Young is an abstract assumption and often does not realize what is really important in society.
12) Understanding value according to AW Green: AW Green explains that value is an awareness that occurs accompanied by an emotion toward something.
13) Definition of value according to Hendropusptio: Value according to Hendropuspito is everything that a society can appreciate because value has functional usability and influences the development of human life.
14) Understanding values according to Simanjuntak: Understanding values according to B. Simanjuntak are ideas that develop in society about something good.
15) Definition of value according to Black’s Law Dictionary (1990: 1550): The utility which something represents in the satisfaction of human needs or wants, directly or indirectly, which economists call the value in that, or its value in the power to buy other things is called the value in contrast.
16) Understanding value according to Louis O. Kattsoff (1987): Distinguishing value into two types, namely: (1) intrinsic value and (2) instrumental value. Intrinsic value is the value of something that has been valuable from the start, while instrumental value is the value of the thing because it can be used as a means to achieve something.
17) Understanding Values according to Radbruch (Notohamidjojo, 1975): There are three important values, namely; 1) the individual, the personal values that are important for the realization of personality, 2) the understanding of values according to the Gemeinschaftswerte, the values of society, values that can only be achieved in human society, and 3) Werkwerte, the values in human labor and in general in human society.culture.
18) Understanding Values by Max Schiller (Hadiwardojo, 1985): grouping values into; Enjoyment, life, psychology and spirituality.
19) Understanding Values According to Norsal Luth and Daniel Fernandez: Values are feelings about what is desirable or undesirable that affect the social behavior of people who have this value. Value is not a question of right or wrong, but a question of whether or not you like it, like it or not. Values are a set of attitudes and feelings that are always shown through the behavior of human beings.
20) Defining value according to IKIP Malang’s Pancasila Lab: A value is something that is valuable, useful and beautiful, that enriches the mind, and makes people realize their worth and dignity. The value comes from the mind that serves to encourage, direct human attitudes and behaviour.
21) Definition of value according to SI. Values are not what one wants, but what one wants. That is, value is not only expected, but bred as something appropriate and appropriate for oneself and others. Measures used to overcome the will at certain times and situations are called values.
22) Defining value according to Horrocks: A value is something that allows individuals or social groups to make decisions about what is to be achieved or what is required. Dynamically, values are learned from social products and slowly assimilated by individuals and accepted as belonging to the group. Values are relatively stable conceptual standards, which explicitly or implicitly direct individuals in defining goals to be achieved and activities in order to satisfy psychological needs.
23) Definition of value according to Spranger: A value is an arrangement that is used as a guide by individuals to weigh and choose alternative decisions in certain social situations. In Spranger’s view, the human personality is shaped and rooted in the arrangement of historical values. Although social context is placed as a dimension of value in human personality, Spranger recognizes the strength of the individual which is known as the self-soul. Meanwhile, the strength of cultural values is an objective spirit. Individual strength or self-spirit is placed at the primary center because cultural values will develop and survive only if they are supported and lived by the individual.
Human acceptance of value is not done passively but rather creatively and actively. In the human process of accepting this value, there is a dialectical relationship between objective spirit and subjective spirit. That is, the objective spirit will develop if it is supported by the subjective spirit, otherwise the objective spirit will develop guided by the objective spirit which is set as an ideal to be achieved. A value is something that is believed to be real and people are encouraged to achieve.
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